Osteoporosis is a progressive disease that affects bone density and quality, leading to an increased risk of bone fractures and reductions in quality of life ( 1 , 2 , 3 ).

Bone is constantly in a cycle of being broken down plus reformed. This process is known as bone remodeling and requires an adequate supply of certain nutrients ( 4 ).

As a result, some may wonder whether certain dietary supplements, in addition to an overall healthy diet, might help prevent and manage the illness.

This particular article examines the research behind eleven supplements associated with managing and preventing osteoporosis, including any potential drawbacks.

Vitamin D is essential for bone tissue health. It plays the key role in calcium absorption and helps regulate bone turnover ( 5 ).

Given the limited number of food sources of this vitamin, which includes fatty fish and fortified dairy products plus cereals, most people obtain vitamin D through sunlight exposure.

However , getting adequate amounts of vitamin D through sunshine exposure can be difficult during the particular winter and for those who spend the majority of their time indoors ( 5 ).

Furthermore, people who live far north or even south of the equator are at an even greater danger of supplement D deficiency due in order to limited sun exposure for up to 2–5 months per year.

One study which includes 400 older adults found that people with osteoporosis were more likely to be deficient within calciferol . Of those deficient in vitamin D, daily intake of a vitamin D supplement was also linked to a lower incidence associated with osteoporosis over 8 weeks ( 6 ).

That said, while vitamin D supplements may be beneficial with regard to people along with calciferol insufficiency, research has not observed benefits of vitamin D supplements once blood levels are in or above sufficiency levels ( 7 , 8 ).

The current Reference Daily Intake (RDI) regarding vitamin D is 600 IU intended for children plus adults ages 1–70 and 800 IU for pregnant or breastfeeding adults and those 71 years or old ( 9 ).

To reduce the risk of bone fragments fractures plus ensure sufficient blood amounts, research suggests that a dose of 400–800 IU of vitamin Deb per day may be adequate ( seven , 10 ).

Interestingly, one study including 311 healthy adults found high doses associated with 4, 000 and ten, 000 IU of calciferol per day resulted in a greater loss of bone mass density more than 3 many years than taking a smaller 400 IU daily dose ( 10 ).

Still, while research suggests smaller doses may be better in the long term for bone density, higher doses might be needed temporarily in more severe supplement D deficiency cases.

Given that it’s estimated that 50% of the population has low levels of vitamin D, it’s worth talking to a healthcare provider if you’re concerned about not obtaining adequate vitamin D throughout the year ( 11 ).


Vitamin D is essential to get bone health. Vitamin D supplements might be beneficial for people who are lower or lacking in this vitamin.

Magnesium is an essential mineral that’s involved in over 300 reactions in your body. It’s also important for bone tissue health, with approximately 60% of this particular mineral becoming found in bone fragments tissue ( 12 ).

The RDI pertaining to magnesium is 310–320 mg each day meant for people age groups 19–30 yrs and 400–420 mg daily for people ages 31 and older. Needs are also slightly elevated during pregnancy and breastfeeding a baby ( 13 ).

1 study in 51 postmenopausal women found that 40% of women with osteoporosis or low bone denseness had lower circulating magnesium levels ( 14 ).

Additionally, several studies in adults have found that individuals who consume higher amounts of magnesium through their diet or dietary supplements have better bone bulk density than those consuming low amounts ( 15 , 16 ).

While adequate magnesium (mg) intake has been associated along with bone thickness benefits, research is mixed on regardless of whether this benefit translates into a reduced risk of bone fractures ( 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 ).

As more research is needed on the particular role and optimal dose of magnesium supplements on the danger of brittle bones and bone tissue fractures, it is best in order to focus on consuming a diet rich in magnesium-containing foods , such as nuts, seeds, whole grains, plus legumes (19 ).

If you’re concerned about meeting your magnesium (mg) requirements through diet alone, you should speak with your healthcare provider designed for personalized recommendations on magnesium supplements.


Adequate magnesium (mg) intake is important for general bone health and bone density. Yet, a lot more research is needed on magnesium supplements’ role inside preventing bone fragments fractures.

Boron will be a trace element that has been found to play a critical role in bone growth and maintenance. It impacts the use of other nutrients required for bone health, including calcium, magnesium, and calciferol ( 20 , 21 , 22 ).

Currently, there’s no established RDI for boron. Still, based on current study, it’s thought that 1–3 magnesium of boron per day time a great idea ( 22 ).

An older research in postmenopausal women discovered taking 3 mg of boron per day significantly reduced the excretion of calcium mineral and magnesium (mg) in the kidneys ( 2 , 22 ).

Furthermore, one study in rats with osteoporosis found boron supplementation significantly reduced bone tissue loss. However, research confirming this effect in humans is currently lacking ( 23 ).

As dried plums are usually one associated with the best dietary causes of boron, limited research has examined the particular relationship between dried plum intake and bone denseness in humans ( 24 , 25 , 26 ).

For example , one research in 48 postmenopausal ladies with lower bone thickness found that will consuming 50–100 grams of dried plums per time led to significant bone density improvements more than 6 months ( 25 ).

Whilst the exact mechanism isn’t fully understood, it’s thought that all the boron content in the dried apples may partially explain why these fruits have been shown to possess benefits just for bone wellness.

Boron is not regularly present in multivitamin supplements. As an outcome, it may be easier to eat it via foods, which includes prunes, raisins, and dried out apricots.


Boron is a trace element involved inside bone development and servicing. While more research is needed, it has been suggested that 1–3 mg associated with boron per day may support bone fragments health.

Vitamin K plays an important role in maintaining bone strength and avoiding bone breakdown. Low ranges of supplement K have been associated with a greater risk of bone fractures plus low bone tissue density ( 27 , 28 , 29 ).

There’s currently simply no defined RDI for vitamin K. Instead, the adequate intake (AI) for the purpose of adults over 18 is set at 90 mcg each day for females and 120 mcg for each day for men ( 30 ).

While analysis suggests the protective effect of adequate supplement K consumption on bone fragments density and fractures, it’s inconclusive whether or not vitamin K supplements protect bone health ( thirty-one , 32 , 33 ).

Given that more study is required on the role of vitamin E supplements upon osteoporosis plus related fractures, it might be greatest to consume foods rich in vitamin T, such while leafy greens, broccoli, and Brussel sprouts.

It is important to note that vitamin K can interfere along with several medications, including blood thinners like warfarin. Because a result, it’s essential to talk with your doctor before taking vitamin K supplements ( 33 ).


Low levels associated with vitamin K have been connected with reduced bone denseness and danger of bone injuries. More studies needed to determine whether getting vitamin K supplements might help avoid bone loss and fractures.

Isoflavones are a class of antioxidants often referred to as phytoestrogens . They have a structure similar to that will of the particular hormone estrogen and can attach to plus activate female receptors within your body ( 34 ).

During menopause, estrogen levels in the entire body decline. This drop within estrogen may lead in order to bone being separated faster than it can become formed, resulting in an elevated risk associated with osteoporosis ( 35 , 36 ).

Research suggests that soy isoflavones may help combat this reduction of calcium supplement from the bone and reduce the rate of bone turnover ( 37 ).

A single review of 19 research in postmenopausal women found soy isoflavone intake by means of supplements considerably increased bone tissue mineral thickness by 54% and decreased bone resorption marker by 23%, compared with their baseline values ( 38 ).

Similarly, another review associated with 52 studies showed substantial bone density improvements with soy isoflavone supplementation in studies lasting for from least a year ( 39 ).

While promising, it is important to note the particular large variability in the dosage plus supplement form used among studies. As an outcome, the recommended dosage based on current research will be quite broad.

It’s currently thought that 40–110 mg of soy isoflavones per day for with least annually may help combat bone fragments loss and protect against brittle bones ( 37 ).

Keep in mind that a lot more research is needed on differences in dosage requirements across various age groups and ethnicities, the duration of supplementation, and the particular form used.


Soy isolate supplements have been shown to improve bone denseness and decrease bone proceeds in postmenopausal women. More studies required to determine the optimal dosage plus supplement type.

Calcium is a major component of bone tissue and essential for bone tissue strength plus structure. In fact, approximately 99% of your body’s calcium is stored in your skeleton ( 4 ).

The present RDI for calcium ranges from 700–1200 mg daily, with increased needs during certain life stages, including childhood and adolescence, pregnancy and lactation, women more than the age of 50, and all adults 70 years or older ( 40 ).

While sufficient calcium intake throughout your own life is usually important for bone fragments health, research on the possible benefits of using calcium supplements with regard to the prevention and management of osteoporosis is combined ( 41 , 42 , 43 ).

One particular review associated with 8 research found calcium supplements plus supplement D supplements were associated with a 15–30% reduced risk of bone injuries in both community-dwelling plus institutionalized middle-age and old adults ( 44 ).

Nevertheless, another review of thirty-three studies discovered that supplements — either on their own or even in combination with vitamin D — weren’t associated along with a reduced risk of fractures inside older grownups living at home, compared with a placebo ( 45 ).

Similarly, a review associated with 59 studies found that will increasing calcium intake due to either health supplements or food sources resulted in small but not really clinically meaningful improvements in bone mass density ( 46 ).

Overall, whilst calcium supplements may be appropriate for individuals who are at an increased risk of insufficiency , there’s currently insufficient evidence in order to recommend supplements to prevent or handle osteoporosis in the general population.

Potential concerns along with calcium products

There are some concerns about getting large doses of calcium mineral via supplements.

For example, calcium supplements have already been associated with symptoms like constipation, kidney stones, and other digestive issues. There are also some issues that they may be bad for heart health ( 43 ).

One review found out an increased risk of heart attacks in those taking calcium supplement supplements. Nevertheless, other studies have not demonstrated a link between calcium supplements plus negative outcomes for coronary heart health ( 43 , 47 , 48 , 49 ).

While dietary consumption of calcium has not been connected to these side effects, it’s best to focus about meeting your calcium needs through your diet plan and discussing the potential need for dietary supplements with your own healthcare provider.


While there are particular situations within which supplements may be indicated, the current study doesn’t support the use of calcium supplements to avoid or control osteoporosis.

Several trace minerals and elements play essential roles in bone health insurance and might support bone tissue density plus reduce the chance of fractures. They include:

  • Zinc. Zinc is important for bone fragments growth, and higher zinc levels have got been linked to better bone density scores. Additionally, low levels associated with zinc have been found in women with osteoporosis plus low bone tissue density ( 19 , 50 , 51 ).
  • Selenium. Observational studies possess shown the link in between higher selenium intake and bone thickness and osteoporosis risk advantages. Yet, study on the particular effectiveness of selenium supplements is missing ( 52 , 53 , 54 ).
  • Copper. One study found a link between low copper levels plus lower bone fragments density measurements. However, analysis on copper mineral for brittle bones prevention and management is usually overall restricted and inconsistent ( 55 ).
  • Manganese. Observational studies have got associated adequate manganese levels with benefits for bone density. A lot more research is needed to further examine the role associated with manganese health supplements in bone tissue health ( 4 , 56 ).
  • Silicon. Inside animal research, silicon products have been proven to increase bone density and reduce fragility. Nevertheless , research in humans is limited to just a few older studies ( 57 , 58 ).

Whilst it’s crucial to get sufficient amounts of these minerals in your diet, more studies required on whether these supplements can help control osteoporosis plus related fracture risk.

Several herbal supplements are also utilized in alternative medicine in order to help treat osteoporosis. However , the effectiveness of these products in humans is not really currently supported by study ( 59 ).


Overall, more research is needed to evaluate if taking specific trace nutrients and elements as supplements helps prevent or manage osteoporosis.

It’s generally recommended to meet your nutrient requirements for bone fragments health via a healthy, balanced diet . However, some individuals may struggle to do so.

In particular, calciferol can end up being difficult to obtain through diet alone.

While this can be synthesized from sunlight during certain times from the year, vitamin D supplements might be indicated for people with limited exposure to sunlight due to their location, lifestyle, or the particular time of year.

Additionally , due to naturally occurring changes in the skin along with age, older adults may be less effective at synthesizing calciferol ( 60 ).

Other compounds important regarding bone wellness, including magnesium, calcium, vitamin K, and soy isoflavones, are widely available in foods.

However, some instances in which supplements for these nutrients might be indicated include ( 61 , 62 ):

  • restricted access to food
  • the chronically poor appetite
  • conditions causing nutrient malabsorption
  • being pregnant and nursing
  • bariatric surgery, such like gastric bypass
  • a few vegan or even vegetarian diets
  • restrictive diets

It is essential to keep in mind that many supplements may have unintended negative effects and interact with certain medicines.

Overall, if you’re worried about eating enough nutrients to support bone health, it’s vital that you talk with your own healthcare provider for personalized recommendations before taking supplements.


Diet is definitely the preferred way in order to obtain essential nutrients for bone tissue health. Nevertheless , there are certain situations in which supplements may be indicated. Always talk to a doctor prior to adding any supplements to your regimen.

Nutrition by yourself cannot cure or fully prevent brittle bones . However , it may play a key part in the management plus prevention associated with the condition.

While certain nutrients are essential for bone fragments health, which includes vitamin D, magnesium (mg), boron, and vitamin Nited kingdom, more analysis is required on the particular effectiveness of consuming them as supplements.

If you’re concerned about getting adequate nutrients intended for bone health through your diet only, it’s best to talk with a trusted doctor to get specific suggestions before using any dietary supplements.

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